The Thermocouple is by far the most commonly used type of all the temperature sensor types. Thermocouples are popular due to its simplicity, ease of use and their speed of response to changes in temperature, due mainly to their small size. Thermocouples also have the widest temperature range of all the temperature sensors from below -200oC to well over 2000oC.
Thermocouples are thermoelectric sensors that basically consists of two junctions of dissimilar metals, such as copper and constantan that are welded or crimped together. One junction is kept at a constant temperature called the reference (Cold) junction, while the other the measuring (Hot) junction. When the two junctions are at different temperatures, a voltage is developed across the junction which is used to measure the temperature sensor as shown below.
The operating principal of a thermocouple is very simple and basic. When fused together the junction of the two dissimilar metals such as copper and constantan produces a “thermo-electric” effect which gives a constant potential difference of only a few millivolts (mV) between them. The voltage difference between the two junctions is called the “Seebeck effect” as a temperature gradient is generated along the conducting wires producing an emf. Then the output voltage from a thermocouple is a function of the temperature changes.
If both the junctions are at the same temperature the potential difference across the two junctions is zero in other words, no voltage output as V1 = V2. However, when the junctions are connected within a circuit and are both at different temperatures a voltage output will be detected relative to the difference in temperature between the two junctions, V1 – V2. This difference in voltage will increase with temperature until the junctions peak voltage level is reached and this is determined by the characteristics of the two dissimilar metals used.
Thermocouples can be made from a variety of different materials enabling extreme temperatures of between -200oC to over +2000oC to be measured. With such a large choice of materials and temperature range, internationally recognised standards have been developed complete with thermocouple colour codes to allow the user to choose the correct thermocouple sensor for a particular application. The British colour code for standard thermocouples is given below.
Thermocouple Colour Codes
|Thermocouple Sensor Colour CodesExtension and Compensating Leads|
|Code Type||Conductors (+/-)||Sensitivity||British BS 1843:1952|
|E||Nickel Chromium / Constantan||-200 to 900oC|
|J||Iron / Constantan||0 to 750oC|
|K||Nickel Chromium / Nickel Aluminium||-200 to 1250oC|
|N||Nicrosil / Nisil||0 to 1250oC|
|T||Copper / Constantan||-200 to 350oC|
|U||Copper / Copper Nickel Compensating for “S” and “R”||0 to 1450oC|
The three most common thermocouple materials used above for general temperature measurement are Iron-Constantan (Type J), Copper-Constantan (Type T), and Nickel-Chromium (Type K). The output voltage from a thermocouple is very small, only a few millivolts (mV) for a 10oC change in temperature difference and because of this small voltage output some form of amplification is generally required.
The type of amplifier, either discrete or in the form of an Operational Amplifier needs to be carefully selected, because good drift stability is required to prevent recalibration of the thermocouple at frequent intervals. This makes the chopper and instrumentation type of amplifier preferable for most temperature sensing applications.
Other Temperature Sensor Types not mentioned here include, Semiconductor Junction Sensors, Infra-red and Thermal Radiation Sensors, Medical type Thermometers, Indicators and Colour Changing Inks or Dyes.
In this tutorial about “Temperature Sensor Types”, we have looked at several examples of sensors that can be used to measure changes in temperature. In the next tutorial we will look at sensors that are used to measure light quantity, such as Photodiodes, Phototransistors, Photovoltaic Cells and the Light Dependant Resistor.